Marat's Science

BIBLIOGRAPHY

This is a combined list of sources for both the printed book Jean Paul Marat: Tribune of the French Revolution and the five chapters on Marat’s science on this website.

Works by Marat

L’Ami du peuple. Reprint edition: Collection complete du journal, 12 sept. 1789-14 juil. 1793 (Tokyo: Society for Reproduction of Rare Books, 1967.)

Les Aventures du jeune comte Potowski. First edition: Paris: Chlendowski, 1848. “Bicentennial edition,” edited by Claire Nicholas-Lelièvre: Monaco: Renaudot, 1989.

Les Chaînes de l’ésclavage. Paris, 1792. Modern edition: Brussels: Complexe, 1988.

The Chains of Slavery, a Work Wherein the Clandestine and Villainous Attempts of Princes to Ruin Liberty Are Pointed out, and the Dreadful Scenes of Despotism Disclosed, to which is Prefixed an Address to the Electors of Great Britain, in order to Draw Their Timely Attention to the Choice of Proper Representatives in the Next Parliament. London: J. Almon, 1774.

La Constitution, ou Projet de déclaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen. Paris: Buisson, 1789.

La Correspondance de Marat. Edited by Charles Vellay. Paris: Charpentier et Fasquelle, 1908.

Découvertes de M. Marat sur le feu, l’électricité, et la lumière. Paris: Clousier, 1779.

Découvertes sur la lumière. Paris: Jombert, 1780.

An Enquiry into the Nature, Cause and Cure of a Singular Disease of the Eyes, Hitherto Unknown, and yet Common, Produced by the Use of Certain Mercurial Preparations (January 1, 1776). In Reprint of Two Tracts by Jean Paul Marat, M.D. Edited by James Blake Bailey. London: Percival & Co., 1891.

An Essay on Gleets, Wherein the Defects of the Actual Method of Treating those Complaints of the Urethra are Pointed Out, and an Effectual Way of Curing Them Indicated (November 1775). In Reprint of Two Tracts by Jean Paul Marat, M.D. Edited by James Blake Bailey. London: Percival & Co., 1891.

Essay on the Human Soul. London: T. Beckett, 1772.

De l’homme, ou des Principes et des loix de l’influence de l’âme sur le corps, et du corps sur l’âme. Three volumes. Amsterdam: Marc Michel Rey, 1775–76.

Mémoire sur l’électricité médicale, couronné le 6 août 1783, par l’Académie Royale des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts de Rouen. Paris: Méquignon, 1784.

Mémoires académiques, ou Nouvelles Découvertes sur la lumière, relatives aux points les plus importans de l’optique. Paris: Méquignon, 1788.

Notions élémentaires d’optique. Paris: Didot, 1784.

Œuvres de Marat. Edited by A. Vermorel. Paris: Décembre-Alonnier, 1869.

Les Pamphlets de Marat. Edited by Charles Vellay. Paris: Charpentier et Fasquelle, 1911.

A Philosophical Essay on Man, Being an Attempt to Investigate the Principles and Laws of the Reciprocal Influence of the Soul on the Body. 2 vols. London, 1773.

Plan de législation criminelle. No copies of the first edition (Neuchâtel, 1780) are known to have survived. 2nd edition: Berlin, 1782. 3rd edition: Paris: Rochette, 1790. Modern edition: Edited by Daniel Hamiche. Paris: Aubier Montaigne, 1974.

Recherches physiques sur le feu. Paris: Jombert, 1780.

Recherches physiques sur l’électricité. Paris: Clousier, 1782.

Works Attributed to Marat

Anonymous. Polish Letters. Boston, 1905. Reprint; New York: Benjamin Blom, 1971.

L’Observateur Bon-Sens. Lettre sur la fatale catastrophe des infortunés Platre de Rosier & Romain. 1785.

Soycourt, le chevalier de. Mémoire sur les expériences données en preuves de la chaleur latente; sur quelques defauts inconnus, mais énormes, du Thérmomètre, & les moyens d’y remedier. London: Bleuet, 1788.

Other

Académie des Sciences. “Rapport de la commission nommée par l’Académie des Sciences, pour l’examen des découvertes de Marat.” Registres de l’Académie des Sciences (1779), 97–100.

Aepinus, Franz Ulrich Theodosius. Tentamen theoriae electricitatis et magnetismi. St. Petersburg: Typis Academiae Scientiarum, 1759.

Almaric, Pierre. “Marat et l’optique.” In Marat homme de science? Edited by Jean François Lemaire and Jean Pierre Poirier. Plessis-Robinson, France: Synthélabo, 1993.

Amrine, Frederick, Francis J. Zucker, and Harvey Wheeler, eds. Goethe and the Sciences: A Reappraisal. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel, 1987.

Archives Parlementaires de 1787 à 1860. Paris, 1867.

Asimov, Isaac. Asimov’s Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1982.

Aulard, Alphonse, ed. La Société des Jacobins: Recueil de documents. 6 vols. Paris, 1889–97.

Ayer, A. J. Thomas Paine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Bachelard, Gaston. La Psychanalyse du feu. Paris: Librairie Gallimard, 1938. English translation: The Psychoanalysis of Fire. Boston: Beacon Press, 1968.

Barbaroux, Charles. Mémoires. Paris: Baudouin Frères, 1822.

Bax, Ernest Belfort. Jean Paul Marat: The People’s Friend (1900). Available on-line at:

http://www.marxists.org/archive/bax/1900/marat/ch04.htm

Beccaria, Cesare. Dei Delitti e Delle Pene. Monaco, 1764.

Becher, Johann Joachim. Physica subterranea. 1663.

Bentley, Richard. Works. London: F. Macpherson, 1836–38.

Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Jacques Henri. Études de la nature. 3 vols. Paris: P. F. Didot, 1784.

——— Paul et Virginie. First appeared in vol. IV of the third edition of Études de la nature, 1788. First separate edition, 1789. English translation: Paul and Virginia. London: Penguin Books, 1982.

Bertholon, Pierre. De l’électricité du corps humain dans l’état de santé et de maladie. Paris: Didot, 1780.

Black, Joseph. Lectures on the Elements of Chemistry. Edited and published by John Robison. Edinburgh, 1803.

Blay, Michel. “Études sur l’optique newtonienne.” In Isaac Newton, Optique. Traduit de l’anglais par Jean-Paul Marat (1787). Edited by Michel Blay. Paris: Christian Bourgois, 1989.

——— “Marat, théoricien de l’optique et critique de Newton.” Scientifiques et sociétés pendant la Révolution et l’empire. Paris: 114e Congr. nat. Soc. sav., 1989.

——— “Sur quelques enjeux des théories de la lumière et des couleurs de Marat.” In Marat homme de science? Edited by Jean François Lemaire and Jean Pierre Poirier. Plessis-Robinson, France: Synthélabo, 1993.

Boiteux, Marcel. “Marat électricien.” In Marat homme de science? Edited by Jean François Lemaire and Jean Pierre Poirier. Plessis-Robinson, France: Synthélabo, 1993.

Bonno, Gabriel. “Une lettre inédite de Marat.” La Révolution française (1932), 350–2.

Boscovich, R. G. Philosophiae naturalis theoria redacta ad unicam legem virium in natural existentium. 1758.

Bougeart, Alfred. Marat, l’ami du peuple. 2 vols. Paris: Libraire Internationale, 1865.

Brissot de Warville, Jacques Pierre. De la vérité, ou Méditations sur les moyens de parvenir à la vérité dans toutes les connaissances humaines. Neuchâtel: Société Typographique, 1782. A “nouvelle édition, exactement conforme à la première” was issued by the same publisher in 1792.

——— Mémoires, 1754–1793. Paris: Picard & Fils, 1912.

Brucker, Gene A. Jean Sylvain Bailly: Revolutionary Mayor of Paris. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishers, 1984; originally published in 1950.

Buchan, William. Domestic Medicine; or, The family physician. Edinburgh, 1769.

Buchez, P. J. B. and P. C. Roux. Histoire parlementaire de la Révolution française. 40 vols. Paris, 1834–38.

Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, le comte de. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du cabinet du roi. 44 vols. Paris: L’Imprimerie royale du Louvre, 1749-1804.

Burke, Edmond. Reflections on the French Revolution. London, 1790.

Burr, Charles W. “Jean Paul Marat, Physician, Revolutionary, Paranoaic,” Annals of Medical History III (1919), 248–61.

Cabanès, Augustin. Marat Inconnu: L’Homme privé, le médecin, le savant. 3rd ed. Paris, 1911.

Cantor, Geoffrey. “The Rhetoric of Experiment.” In The Uses of Experiment: Studies in the Natural Sciences. Edited by David Gooding, Trevor Pinch, and Simon Schaffer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Carlyle, Thomas. The French Revolution. New York: Modern Library, 1934. Originally published in 1837.

Carra, Jean Louis. Dissertation élémentaire sur la nature de la lumière, du feu et de l’électricité. Paris, 1787.

——— Nouveaux Principes de physique. 4 vols. Paris: Morin, 1781–83.

Catterall, R. H. C. “The Credibility of Marat.” American Historical Review XVI (1910–11), 24–35.

Charavay, Étienne, ed. Assemblée Électorale de Paris. Paris, 1890.

Chèvremont, F. Jean-Paul Marat, esprit politique accompagné de sa vie scientifique, politique et privée. 2 vols. Paris, 1880.

Clagett, Marshall, ed. Critical Problems in the History of Science. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1959.

Cobban, Alfred. The Social Interpretation of the French Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964.

Cohen, I. B. Franklin and Newton. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1956.

Conant, J. B., ed. Harvard Case Studies in Experimental Science. 2 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1957.

Condorcet, le marquis de. Éloges des Académiciens de l’Académie Royale des Sciences. Paris: Vieweg et Fuchs, 1799.

Coquard, Olivier. Marat. Paris: Fayard, 1993.

——— “Marat et les Académies de province.” In Marat homme de science? Edited by Jean François Lemaire and Jean Pierre Poirier. Plessis-Robinson, France: Synthélabo, 1993.

Courthion, Pierre. Paris in the Past. New York: Skira, 1957.

Cranston, Maurice. The Noble Savage: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1754–1762. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Crawford, Adair. Experiments and Observations on Animal Heat and the Inflammation of Combustible Bodies. London, 1779.

Darnton, Robert. The Business of Enlightenment: A Publishing History of the Encyclopédie, 1775–1800. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979.

——— The Literary Underground of the Old Regime. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982.

——— “Marat n’a pas été un voleur.” Annales historiques de la Révolution française 38 (1966), 447–50.

——— Mesmerism and the End of the Enlightenment in France. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968.

Darnton, Robert, and Daniel Roche, eds. Revolution in Print: The Press in France, 1775–1800. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

Dauben, Joseph. “Marat: His Science and the French Revolution.” Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences 88–89 (1969), 235–61.

d’Églantine, Fabre. Portrait de Marat. Paris: Maradan, 1794.

Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities. New York: Penguin, 1980. Originally published in 1859.

Diderot, Denis. Œuvres complètes. Paris: Garnier, 1875.

Duveau, Georges. 1848: The Making of a Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984.

Esquiros, Alphonse. Histoire des Montagnards. Paris: Lecou, 1847.

Faraday, Michael. Chemical History of a Candle. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 1958.

Farington, Joseph. The Farington Diary (Windsor Typescript).

Fayet, Joseph. La Révolution française et la science, 1789–1795. Paris: Rivière, 1960.

Foucault, Michel. Naissance de la clinique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1963. English ed.: The Birth of the Clinic. New York: Pantheon, 1973.

Fournier l’Héritier, Claude. À Marat, journaliste. Paris, 14 May, 1793.

——— C. Fournier, Américain, à Marat. Paris, 14 March, 1793.

Franklin, Benjamin. Autobiography and Other Pieces. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970.

——— New Experiments and Observations on Electricity, made at Philadelphia in America. 3rd ed. London: D. Henry and R. Cave, 1760. Originally published in 1751.

——— Report of Dr. Benjamin Franklin and other Commissioners Charged by the King of France, with the Examination of the Animal Magnetism as Now Practised at Paris. London, 1785.

Furet, François and Mona Ozouf, eds. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989.

Gendron, François. The Gilded Youth of Thermidor. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1993.

Germani, Ian. Jean-Paul Marat: Hero and Anti-Hero of the French Revolution. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen, 1992.

Gilbert, William. De Magnete. London: Peter Short, 1600. English ed.: On the Magnet. London: Chiswick Press, 1900.

Gilchrest, J., and W. J. Murray. The Press in the French Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1971.

Gillispie, C. C. The Edge of Objectivity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1960.

——— Science and Polity in France at the End of the Old Regime. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.

Gooding, David, Trevor Pinch, and Simon Schaffer, eds. The Uses of Experiment: Studies in the Natural Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Zur Farbenlehre. Tübingen, 1810. Partial English translation: Theory of Colors. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1970.

Goëtz, Charlotte. Marat en famille: La saga des Mara(t), 2 volumes (Bruxelles, Pôle Nord, 2001).

Gottschalk, Louis. Jean Paul Marat: A Study in Radicalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967. Originally published in 1927.

Grimaldi, F. M. Physico-Mathesis de Lumine Coloribus et Iride. Bologna, 1665.

Guerlac, Henry. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier: Chemist and Revolutionary. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1975.

——— Newton on the Continent. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1981.

——— “On the Papers of Gillispie and Williams.” In Critical Problems in the History of Science. Edited by Marshall Clagett. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1959.

——— “Some Aspects of Science During the French Revolution,” Scientific Monthly LXXX, no. 2 (February 1955), 93–101.

Guillaume, James. Études révolutionnaires, Première Série. Paris: P. V. Stock, 1908.

——— “Le Berger Daubenton: Encore une légende contre-révolutionnaire.” In Guillaume, Études révolutionnaires, Première Série. Paris: P. V. Stock, 1908, 178–97.

——— “Un mot légendaire: ‘La République n’a pas besoin de savants,’” Révolution française 38 (1900), 385–99.

Guizot, François. L’Histoire de France depuis 1789 jusqu’en 1848 racontée à mes petits-enfants par M. Guizot. Paris: Hachette, 1878.

Hahn, Roger. The Anatomy of a Scientific Institution: The Paris Academy of Sciences, 1666–1803. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.

Hammersley, Rachel. “Jean-Paul Marat’s The Chains of Slavery in Britain and France, 1774-1833,” The Historical Journal, v. 48, no. 3 (Sep. 2005).

Hampson, Norman. Will and Circumstance: Montesquieu, Rousseau and the French Revolution. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1983.

Hébert, Jacques René. Le Père Duchesne d’Hébert. Edited by Frédéric Braesch. Paris, 1938.

Heilbron, J. L. Electricity in the 17th and 18th Centuries: A Study of Early Modern Physics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.

——— Elements of Early Modern Physics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.

——— “Franklin, Haller, and Franklinist History.” Isis LXVIII, no. 244 (December 1977), 539–49.

Hobsbawm, E. J. Echoes of the Marseillaise. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

Hugo, Victor. Œuvres complètes. Paris, 1910.

Jallabert, Jean. Expériences sur l’électricité, avec quelques conjectures sur la cause de ses effets. Paris, 1749.

Jones, Colin. The Longman Companion to the French Revolution. New York: Longman, 1995.

Kirk, G. S., J. E. Raven, and M. Schofield, eds. The Presocratic Philosophers. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Labrousse, C. E. Esquisse du mouvement des prix et des revenus en France au XVIIIe siècle. Paris, 1933.

Lacépède, Bernard Germain Etienne, le comte de. Essai sur l’électricité naturelle et artificielle. 2 vols. Paris: Impr. de Monsieur, 1781.

Lacroix, Sigismond, ed. Actes de la Commune de Paris pendant la Révolution. 15 vols. Paris, 1894–1914.

Lamarck, Jean Baptiste. Recherches sur les causes des principaux faits physiques. 2 vols. Paris: Chez Maradan, seconde année de la République (1794).

——— Réfutation de la théorie pneumatique, ou de la Nouvelle Doctrine des chimistes modernes. Paris: Agasse, 1796.

Lamartine, Alphonse de. Histoire des Girondins. In Oeuvres Complètes. Paris, 1862–66.

Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent. “Mémoire sur quelques fluides qu’on peut obtenir dans l’état aériforme, à un degré de chaleur peu supérieur à la température moyenne de la terre.” In Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, 1780 (actually published in 1784), 334–43.

——— Traité élémentaire de chimie. Paris, 1789. English ed.: Elements of Chemistry. Edinburgh, 1790. Modern ed.: New York: Dover, 1965.

Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, and Pierre Simon Laplace. Mémoire sur la chaleur. Paris, 1783.

Lefebvre, Georges. The Coming of the French Revolution. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1947. Originally published in 1939 as Quatre-vingt-neuf.

——— The French Revolution. 2 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962.

——— The Thermidorians. New York: Vintage, 1964.

Lemaire, Jean François, “Le Docteur Jean-Paul Marat, médecin parisien.” In Marat homme de science? Edited by Jean François Lemaire and Jean Pierre Poirier. Plessis-Robinson, France: Synthélabo, 1993.

Lemaire, Jean François, and Jean Pierre Poirier, eds. Marat homme de science? Plessis-Robinson, France: Synthélabo, 1993.

Lenin, V. I. “Left-Wing” Communism, An Infantile Disorder. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, no date. Original Russian publication: 1920.

Magellan, J. H. de. Collection de différens traités sur des instruments d’astronomie, physique. London, 1780.

Mandelbaum, Norman Bernard. “Jean-Paul Marat: The Rebel as Savant (1743–1788). A Case Study in Careers and Ideas at the End of the Enlightenment.” Unpublished dissertation: Columbia University, 1977.

Marivetz, le baron de, and Louis Jacques Goussier. Physique du monde, dédiée au roi. 7 vols. Paris: Quillau, 1780–87.

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. The Holy Family, or Critique of Critical Criticism. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publ., 1956.

Massin, Jean. Marat. Paris, 1970.

Maury, Alfred. L’Ancienne Académie des Sciences. Paris: Didier, 1864.

Maxwell, James Clerk. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Oxford, 1873.

McGrew, Roderick E. Encyclopedia of Medical History. London: Macmillan, 1985.

McKie, Douglas. Antoine Lavoisier, Scientist, Economist, Social Reformer. New York: Schuman, 1952.

Michelet, Jules. Histoire de la Révolution française. Paris: Laffont, 1979.

Michon, Georges, ed. Correspondance de Maximilien et Augustin Robespierre. Paris: Félix Alcon, 1926.

Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat, baron de. De l’Esprit des Lois. 1748.

Newton, Isaac. Opticks. New York: Dover, 1952. Based on the 4th ed.: London, 1730.

——— Optique. Traduit de l’anglais par Jean-Paul Marat (1787). Edited by Michel Blay. Paris: Christian Bourgois, 1989.

Nollet, Jean Antoine. Essai sur l’électricité des corps. La Haye: Jean Neaulme, 1747.

Paine, Thomas. The Rights of Man. London, 1790.

Phipson, Sidney L. Jean Paul Marat: His Career in England and France Before the Revolution. London: Methuen, 1924.

Pinto, Isaac de. Précis des arguments contre les matérialistes. La Haye: P. F. Gosse, 1774.

Popkin, Jeremy. “Journals: The New Face of News.” In Revolution in Print: The Press in France, 1775–1800. Edited by Robert Darnton and Daniel Roche. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

——— “Marat en Hollande: Un témoignage inconnu.” Dix-huitième siècle 22 (1990), 291–3.

Priestley, Joseph. The History and Present State of Discoveries Relating to Vision, Light, and Colours. London: J. Johnson, 1772.

——— The History and Present State of Electricity with Original Experiments. London: J. Dodsley et al., 1767.

Restif de la Bretonne, Nicolas Edmé. Les Nuits de Paris, ou le Spectateur nocturne. 8 vols. 1788–94. See also: Les Nuits de Paris: A Selection. Translated by L. Asher and E. Fertig. New York: Random House, 1964.

Robespierre. Œuvres de Maximilien Robespierre. Edited by Marc Bouloiseau, Jean Dautry, Georges Lefebvre, and Albert Soboul. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1958.

Robinson, Eric and Douglas McKie, eds., Partners in Science: Letters of James Watt and Joseph Black (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1970)

Roller, Duane. “The Early Development of the Concepts of Temperature and Heat: The Rise and Decline of the Caloric Theory.” In Harvard Case Studies in Experimental Science, vol. I. Edited by J. B. Conant. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1957.

Roller, Duane and Duane H. D. Roller, “The Development of the Concept of Electric Charge: Electricity from the Greeks to Coulomb.” In Harvard Case Studies in Experimental Science, vol. II. Edited by J. B. Conant. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1957.

Romé de l’Isle, Jean Baptiste Louis. L’Action du feu central. Paris, Didot, 1779.

Rousseau, Jean Jacques. Du Contrat social. 1762. English ed.: The Social Contract. In Jean Jacques Rousseau: Political Writings. Edited by Frederick Watkins. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986, 1–155.

Roux, Claudius. “Documents bio-biblio-iconographiques sur Marat.” Albums du Crocodile. Jan.–fév. 1954.

——— Marat et l’Académie de Lyon, d’après des documents inédits. Lyon: M. Audin, 1923.

Roux, Jacques. Jacques Roux à Marat. Paris: Société Typographique, 1793.

Rudé, George. The Crowd in the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972. Originally published in 1959.

——— Wilkes and Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972. Originally published in 1962.

Sage, Baltazar Georges. Institutions de physique. Paris, 1811.

Sepper, Dennis. Goethe Contra Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Shapin, Steven and Arnold Thackray. “Prosopography as a Research Tool in History of Science: The British Scientific Community 1700–1800.” History of Science 12 (1974), 1–28.

Slavin, Morris. The Hébertistes to the Guillotine. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1994.

Steel, Mark. Vive la Révolution: A Stand-up History of the French Revolution (Haymarket Books, 2006).

Taton, René, ed. The Beginnings of Modern Science. New York: Basic Books, 1964.

Thompson, J. M. Leaders of the French Revolution. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988. Originally published in 1929.

Tonnelat, M. A. “The Spread of Newtonian Optics.” In The Beginnings of Modern Science. Edited by René Taton. New York: Basic Books, 1964.

Torrey, Norman L., ed. Les Philosophes. New York: Capricorn, 1960.

Tressan, Louis Elisabeth, le comte de. Essai sur le fluide électrique, considéré comme agent universel. 2 vols. Paris: Buisson, 1786.

Twain, Mark. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court. New York: C. L. Webster, 1889.

Van Marum, Martin. Sur la théorie de Franklin, suivant lequel les phénomènes électriques sont expliqués par un seul fluide. There is no place or date of publication on the title page, but Van Marum’s introduction is datelined “Harlem, October 31, 1819.”

Van Swinden, Jan Heindrich. Recueil de mémoires sur l’analogie de l’électricité et du magnétisme. La Haye: Libraires Associés, 1784.

Vellay, Charles. “Supplément à la correspondance de Marat.” Revue historique de la Révolution française I (1910).

Vess, Donald M. Medical Revolution in France, 1789–1795. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1975.

Vincent, Bernard. Thomas Paine, ou la Religion de la liberté. Paris: Aubier, 1987.

Walter, Gérard. Marat. Paris, 1960. Originally published in 1933.

Wightman, W. P. D. The Growth of Scientific Ideas. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.

Worrall, John. “Fresnel, Poisson and the White Spot: The Role of Successful Predictions in the Acceptance of Scientific Theories.” In The Uses of Experiment: Studies in the Natural Sciences. Edited by David Gooding, Trevor Pinch, and Simon Schaffer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Young, Thomas. “The Bakerian Lecture: Experiments and Calculations Relative to Physical Optics.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London XCIV (1804).